Climate change and its effects are inextricably linked to complex questions of security. In this paper, the authors address two broad categories of security: national and international (the security of states) and human (the security of people).

In this paper, the authors first examine state-of-the art research and thinking on the implications of climate change for security and then identify the key governance challenges the international system faces. The authors explore potential pathways for reform, both to make multilevel climate governance more fit for purpose, and to better anticipate and address the predicted security implications of climate change.